Structure of DNA
Dna vs rna
Structure of the cell
What is pcr
Replication dna methods and process
➔ What is a gene?
➔ Why some parts of the genome (genes) are sometimes inactive (gene regulation).
➔ Genetic code (characteristics/presentations).
➔ Transcription (Why only one of the strands are transcripted).
➔ m-RNA processing.
➔ Ribosome structure (r-RNA).
➔ Neurexins example.
➔ What happens to a neuron after it gets specialized?
➔ Cell division
➔ Control of cell cycle / regulation and its “Checkpoints”
o G1 to S Checkpoint
▪ P53 and PRB
o G0 stage in Cell division!
o Regulators in the process (proteins?)
➔ Stem cells (concept only)
➔ Somatic Cells vs Sex cells
o 2n vs n cells
➔ Diplonte Cycle
➔ “How can a cell start replicating its DNA once during a single cycle?”
➔ “How does the cell know what the next step after DNA replication is, in other words, what stage of the cycle it is in?”
➔ “How does the cell make sure that it only duplicates its DNA once during a single cycle?”
➔ Growth factors
o signaling molecules
o cell membrane
o short- and long-range signals
o Pathway from signaling molecule to alteration of the cell/action within the cell (Moving, Differentiation, Apoptosis, Proliferation; etc.…)
2. Cell movement
What are dna abnormalities?
What are the sources of dna damage? What are the factors/agents?
Types of mutations (hereditary vs non hereditary and chromosomic vs genetic)
What is polymorphisms?
Positive mutations vs negative mutations
What tests/processes do we use to see if there is a mutation? How can we distinguish a normal cell from a mutated one?
Most classic Sequencing process
Consequences of dna abnormalities (population and individual consequences)
What is a tumor?
• Types of tumor
• Malignant tumors (genes mutations - oncogene and protooncogene)
• Difference between malignant and nonmalignant tumor
• Proliferation capacity of malignant and nonmalignant tumor, limitation of cell division (Hayflick limits)
• Can a nonmalignant tumor become a malignant tumor
What is cancer?
• Key factors to identify cancer (oncogene and protooncogene)
• Pathway from tumor to cancer (role of: tumor suppressors - p53 / transcription/telomerase inhibitors/proliferation and other hall markers stages)
• Cancer breakers and accelerators (tumor suppressors, p53, growth factors, CDKs, oncogene and protooncogene)
• Stages of cancer
Mechanisms of cancer
• Signaling between cancer tumors. Signaling between nonmalignant and malignant tumors.
• How does it spread in a tissue, within an organ and between organs? – metastasis mechanisms
• How does it not always spread to the all body (through blood vessel)?
• High level marks of fertilization
• Pregnancy tests: how do they work?
• From stem cells to cell differentiation in the embryo
• 3 weeks of embryonic development
• Weeks of embryonic development vs weeks of pregnancy
• Cell cycle: first three weeks of development
How does biology generate a limb (arm) using anatomical reference position (axis)?
HOX genes (9-13)
Induction, determination, cell migration, differentiation and fate (cell signaling)
• What is it?
• Why is it important for the development of an arm?
Ultrasounds and embryology- 13th week
Distinguish between growth and development
- different stages
- tools to measure (e.g. charts)
- J.piaget (cognitive development)
- Social and emotional development
How do you produce these graphs?
Should people be analyzed at a world scale or better to divide them in origins?
Why do your limbs grow faster than your torso in puberty?
Why does hair start to grow in certain places?
How does puberty starts/regulation (growth hormones, and more...)?
Menstrual cycle and uterine cycle (hormones associated)
Primary and secondary sexual characteristics and emotional changes in men and women.
Stages of puberty:
Methods of tracking primary and secondary characteristics.
How does Piaget theory cognitive development impact the social and emotional development?
Different types of bones
Types of fractures
Does the regeneration get influenced by age (bone development)?
Hallmarks of inflammation
Treatments of the fracture
Bone as a tissue: Types of cell
Functions of the bone
From where and how are bones formed
What’s an X-Ray
Growth of the bones (Extensions, Diameter)
o Skin tissues
▪ Connective tissue
• Collagen!!!! And other elements
o Where do proteins go after they are synthesized?
• Damage of collagen fibers
• Skin healing/regeneration
• The process of inflammation (+detail)
• Scar tissue
o How scars are formed
• Scar defects
• What is ageing?
o Stem cell reservoir
o Effects on cell communication
o Processes of damaging the cell and body’s response
o Theories of ageing (trying to explain ageing)
• Hallmarks of ageing
• Effects/Consequences of ageing
• What is (biological/natural) death?