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Basic genetic terminology: Genes (regulatory and structural genes, genes for RNAs), allele, multiple alleles, genotype, phenotype, qualitative and quantitative traits, homozygous and heterozygous individuals, autosomes and sex chromosomes, genome, karyotype. Genetic information: DNA replication. Gene expression (transcription and translation). Comparison of genes in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Genetic information in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell, types of human chromosomes. Inheritance of qualitative traits: Relations between alleles (complete dominance, incomplete dominance, codominance). Mendel´s laws – monohybrid and dihybrid cross, backcrossing. Inheritance of blood groups in humans. Characteristics of autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance. Gonosomal inheritance: Modes of chromosomal sex determination (Drosophila, Abraxas), homogametic and heterogametic sex. Characteristics of human sex chromosomes X and Y. Characteristics of X-linked dominant, X-linked recessive and Ylinked inheritance. Sex-influenced and sex-limited traits. Examples of human diseases caused by gonosomal genes. Genetic linkage: Morgan´s rules. Complete vs. non-complete linkage. Importance of genetic linkage. Mutations: Mutagens (chemical, physical, biological). Classification of mutations. Gene mutations (substitution, insertion, deletion). Structural chromosomal mutations (deletion, duplication, inversion, translocation). Numerical chromosomal mutations (aneuploidy, polyploidy). Examples of human disorders caused by mutations. Interactions between non-allelic genes: Epistasis, additive effect. Population genetics. Definition of the population. Hardy-Weinberg law and the genetic equilibrium in population. Autogamy and random mating populations. Factors influencing the equilibrium in population (selection, migration, genetic drift, mutations).Human genetics: Methods used in human genetics, genetic diseases and dispositions, genetic counselling.

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